Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
In this study, Dr. Kim designed short, 12-meric antimicrobial peptides by substituting amino acids from the N-terminal 12 residues of the papiliocin (Pap12-1) peptide to alter cationicity and amphipathicity and improve antibacterial activity and bacterial membrane interactions. Pap12-6, with an amphipathic α-helical structure and Trp12 at the C-terminus, showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, especially against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Dye leakage, membrane depolarization, and electron microscopy data proved that Pap12-6 kills bacteria by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. Additionally, Pap12-6 significantly reduced the secretion of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 and secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene activity confirmed that Pap12-6 shows anti-inflammatory activity via a TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. In a mouse sepsis model, Pap12-6 significantly improved survival, reduced bacterial growth in organs, and reduced LPS and inflammatory cytokine levels in the serum and organs. Pap12-6 showed minimal cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells and controlled liver and kidney damage, proving its high bacterial selectivity. Our results suggest that Pap12-6 is a promising peptide antibiotic for the therapeutic treatment of Gram-negative sepsis via dual bactericidal and immunomodulatory effects on the host.
Ideally Papiliocin Pap12-1 should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Papiliocin Pap12-1 should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Kim J, Jacob B, Jang M, Kwak C, Lee Y, Son K, Lee S, Jung ID, Jeong MS, Kwon SH, Kim Y. Development of a novel short 12-meric papiliocin-derived peptide that is effective against Gram-negative sepsis. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 7;9(1):3817.
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-RWKIFKKIEKVG-Amidation
- Chemical Formula:C74H123N21O14
- Sequence length:12
- Extinction coefficient:5690 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:1530.9
- Theoretical pI:10.99
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"