Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a regulatory neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon superfamily, of which some members have shown antimicrobial activities. Contrasting to mammals, published studies on the action of PACAP in non-mammalian vertebrate immune system remain scarce. Some of our recent studies added this peptide to the growing list of mediators that allow cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in teleost fish. Regulation of PACAP and expression of its receptor genes has been demonstrated during an immune response mounted against acute bacterial infection in fish, though the direct effect of PACAP against fish pathogenic bacteria has never been addressed. Current work provides evidence of antimicrobial activity of Clarias gariepinus PACAP against a wide spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi of interest for human medicine and aquaculture, in which computational prediction studies supported the putative PACAP therapeutic activity. Results also indicated that catfish PACAP not only exhibits inhibitory effects on pathogen growth, but also affects the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H460 in a dose-dependent manner. The observed cytotoxic activity of catfish PACAP against human tumor cells and pathogenic microorganisms, but not healthy fish and mammalian erythrocytes support a potential physiological role of this neuropeptide in selective microbial and cancer cell killing. All together, our findings extend the mechanisms by which PACAP could contribute to immune responses, and open up new avenues for future therapeutic application of this bioactive neuropeptide.
Ideally PACAP-38 should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. PACAP-38 should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Lugo JM, Tafalla C, Oliva A, et al. Evidence for antimicrobial and anticancer activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) from North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Its potential use as novel therapeutic agent in fish and humans. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019;86:559-570. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2018.11.056
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-HSDGIFTDSYSRYRKQMAVKKYLAAVLGRRYRQRFRNK-Amidation
- Chemical Formula:C207H331N69O53S
- Sequence length:38
- Extinction coefficient:5120 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:4666.32
- Theoretical pI:11.4
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"