Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
LyP-1 (CGNKRTRGC), a cyclic phage-displayed nonapeptide was identified as a tumor lymphatic vessel homing peptide. LyP-1 accumulated in the tumor lymphatics but not the tumor blood vessels of several tumor xenograft models including osteosarcomas, prostate and breast cancers, and metastatic lymph nodes of the vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) overexpressing MDA-MB-435 tumors. In addition, LyP-1 recognizes the hypoxic tumor lesions. LyP-1 is a unique peptide due to its tumor penetrating ability and the inbuilt antitumor activity. LyP-1 was internalized and inhibited the MDA-MB-435 tumor cell growth in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 of approximately 66 uM. This effect was LyP-1 specific and no effect on cell viability was detected when cells were treated with the control peptides (CRVRTRSGC, CGEKRTRGC). Later the cell surface associated mitochondrial protein p32/gC1qR was identified as the LyP-1 interacting partner expressed by tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages that are often incorporated into the walls of tumor lymphatic vessels. p32 is expressed in several tumor types as well as in atherosclerotic lesions. The LyP-1 peptide has been used in several applications for tumor targeted delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents. Timur et al. elucidated the interaction between LyP-1 and p32 by generating alanine scan derivatives of the LyP-1 peptide followed by interaction studies using molecular docking and Molecular Mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann Surface Area (MM–PBSA). The structureactivity relationship data generated by alanine-scan thermodynamics revealed 3Asn, 4Lys, 5Arg, and 7Arg as the most essential amino acids responsible for the p32 binding. The shortened variant of LyP-1 (truncated LyP-1; tLyP-1) with the highest tumor penetration activity conferred by its exposed CendR internalizing domain is reviewed under the tumor penetrating peptides.
Ideally LyP-1 peptide should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. LyP-1 peptide should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Zhang, L. et al. Canc. Res. 66, 5696 (2006); Akerman, M. et al. PNAS 99, 12617 (2002); Laakkonen, P.et al. Nat. Med. 8, 751 (2002).
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-CGNKRTRGC-OH
- Chemical Formula:C36H65N17O12S2
- Sequence length:9
- Extinction coefficient:120 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:992.13
- Theoretical pI:10.12
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"