Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
TAT (48–60), GRKKRRQRRRPPQ, is an arginine rich peptide that can cross the cellular membranes and translocate into the nucleus due to a nuclear localization signal within its sequence. TAT has been conjugated to various active agents to mediate their delivery into the cells. Tan et al. utilized TAT-derived peptides (P1, P2, P3) coupled to an anti-HER2 peptide mimetic (AHNP) and STAT3 inhibiting peptide (P1/P2/P3-AHNPSTAT3) to enhance the TAT-dependent internalization and delivery of the therapeutic peptide into different HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells including MDA-MB-435, SKBr3, and BT-474. The P1 variant (YGRKKRRQRRR) showed highest internalization compared to the other two truncated variants (P2; YGRKKRRQRR) and (P3; YGRKKRRQR) in HER 2-overexpressing SKBr3 cells indicating that arginine residue (R) is important for the increased cellular internalization.
Ideally Cys-TAT(47-57) peptide should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Cys-TAT(47-57) peptide should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Bright R. et al. Neurosci lett. 441, 120-124 (2008)
- Moultin HM. Et al. Bioconj Chem. 15(2):290-299 (2004).
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-CYGRKKRRQRRR-Amidation
- Chemical Formula:C67H124N34O14S
- Sequence length:12
- Extinction coefficient:1280 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:1661.98
- Theoretical pI:12.41
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
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