Cis-regulatory elements and trans-regulatory elements are two types of DNA segments that have distinct functions in gene regulation.
Cis-regulatory elements are located on the same DNA molecule as the gene they regulate. They are typically short DNA sequences that act as binding sites for transcription factors, which are proteins that control gene expression. Cis-regulatory elements can be promoters, enhancers, or silencers, and their presence or absence directly affects the expression of the gene they regulate. For example, a promoter cis-regulatory element is responsible for initiating the transcription of a gene by binding transcription factors and RNA polymerase to the gene's promoter region.
In contrast, trans-regulatory elements are genes or proteins that can regulate the expression of one or more target genes located on different DNA molecules. These genes or proteins are often referred to as transcription factors or trans-acting factors because they can bind to the cis-regulatory elements of various genes and influence their expression. Trans-regulatory elements can be expressed in the same cell or in different cells or tissues. They are typically involved in coordinating complex gene regulatory networks and can regulate the expression of multiple target genes with diverse functions.
In summary, cis-regulatory elements are DNA sequences located near the gene they regulate, while trans-regulatory elements are genes or proteins that can regulate the expression of target genes located on different DNA molecules.
Souce: NovoPro 2023-08-18