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Peptide Modifications

(1) Cyclization

Head-to-tail cyclic, stapled peptide, side chain cyclic, multiple disulfide-bonds cyclic (Sec&Sec), monothioether cyclic, click chemistry, Cyclization via xylene or mesitylene

(2) Isotopic labeling

13C, 15N modified R or K (D type or L type)

(3) PEG modification

PEG2, PEG4, PEG8, PEG12, PEG24, PEG36, PEG2000, PEG5000, PEG3400, PEG20K, PEG40K

(4) Phosphorylation

p-Tyr, p-Ser, p-Thr,

(5) Peptide Conjugation

KLH (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin), BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin), OVA (Ovalbumin)

(6) N terminal or side chain modification

Acetylation, Formylation, Biotin, Fatty acid modification (Palm, Myr,Lauryl), Trifluoroacetylation (TFA), Benzoylation (Bzo), 2-Aminobenzoylation (Abz), Maleimide, Chloride acetylation, Bromine acetylation, Succinylation, Hynic, DOTA, NOTA (Chelating Peptides),

(7) C terminal modification

Amidation, Esterification, AMC, AFC, PNA, CMK, FMK, Aldehydes, Alcohols, Succinylated

(8) D-type amino acid

Common D type aa: D-Ala, D-Arg, D-Asn, D-Asp, D-Cys, D-Gln, D-Glu, D-His, D-Ile, D-Lys, D-Leu, D-Met, D-Phe, D-Pro, D-Ser, D-Thr, D-Trp, D-Tyr, D-Ser

Uncommon D type aa: D-Abu, D-Bal, D-Cha, D-Cit, D-Hyp, D-Nle, D-Nal, D-Nva, D-Orn, D-Tic, D-Pen

(9) Methylation and other alkylation modifications

N- Methylation:

NMe-His, NMe-Met, NMe-Gly, NMe-Ala, NMe-Asn, NMe-Asp, NMe-Arg, NMe-Cys, NMe-Glu, NMe-Gln, NMe-Leu, NMe-Ile, NMe-Lys, NMe-Ser, NMe-Thr, NMe-Trp, NMe-Val, NMe-Nle, NMe-Phe

Other Methylation: Lys(Me), Lys(Me)2, Lys(Me)3, Arg(Me), Arg(Me)2S, Arg(Me)2AS, Cys(Me), Asp(OMe), Glu(OMe), Tyr(Me), Trp(Me)

(10) Glycopeptide

alpha-, beta-Glc and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)

Glucose: Ser(beta-D-GlcNAc), Thr(beta-D-GlcNAc, Asn(beta-D-GlcNAc), etc.

Galactose: Ser(alpha-D-GalNAc) and Thr(alpha-D-GalNAc) (Tn Antigens)

Ser(Gal-beta(1-3)GalNAc) and Thr (Gal-beta(1-3)GalNAc) (TF Antigens)

Mannose: Ser(alpha-D-ManNAc), Thr(alpha-D-ManNAc, Ser(alpha-D-Man), Thr(alpha-D-Man)

(11) Single Fluorescence modification

N terminal, Lys or Cys: FAM, FITC, TAMRA, Bodipy, Cy5, Cy7

N terminal or Lys side chain: DansylChlorde, Mca, Dabcyl, Dnp, CarboxyRhodamine110, 7OHCCA, Tide Fluor series, Alexa Fluor series, Texas Red, QSY series, Atto series

Cys sulfydryl: DACIA, Farnesyl

Glu, Asp side chain or C terminal: Edans

(12) FRET peptide

5FAM+Farnesyl, FITC+5FAM, Dabcyl+Edans, Mca+Dnp, 5FAM+TQ2, Cy5+QSY21, 6FAM+QSY9, 5TAMRA+QSY7, DNP+DACIA, Tide Fluor 555+Tide Fluor 647, Tide Fluor 488+Tide Flour550

(13) Other side chain modifications

Tyr derivatives: Tyr(3-Cl), Tyr(3-NO2), Tyr(SO3H2)

Phe derivatives: Phe(4-Cl), Phe(4-NO2), Phe(3-Cl), Phe(4-CF3)

Ser side chain alkylation: Ser(Butanoyl), Ser(Octanoyl), Ser(Palm), Ser(Laury), Ser(Myr)

Souce: NovoPro    2021-06-22