Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been linked to the tumor progression and suppress anti-tumor immunity. Number of TAMs in human tumors correlate with a higher tumor grade and shortened survival for several cancer types. In particular, the perivascular macrophages in tumors have been associated with increased tumor angiogenesis, distant metastasis, poor prognosis, and/or the recurrence of tumors after chemotherapy in various forms of cancer. To identify peptides binding the peritoneal cells of 4T1 breast cancer bearing mice, Teesalu and colleagues performed a phage screen by injecting the CX7C peptide library to the peritoneum of tumor-bearing or healthy mice. After 2 h, the peritoneal cells were isolated, the bound phage were rescued by amplification and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. The CSPGAKVRC peptide (UNO) was the most frequent non-truncated peptide in the pool amplified from the tumor-bearing mice. The GSPGAK motif was detected in physiological ligands of CD206, a marker of M2-skewed macrophages. The authors then showed that UNO bound to the CD206, but interestingly the binding required linearity of the UNO peptide. It was concluded that the glutaredoxin system in the tumor microenvironment may contribute to the reduction of the disulfide-bridged UNO. Intravenously injected fluorescent UNO (FAM-UNO) accumulated in the CD206+ macrophages in 4T1 tumors and in sentinel lymph nodes. In addition, FAM-UNO recognized the CD206+ macrophages in several other tumor models such as intracranial glioblastoma (WT-GBM), metastatic melanoma (B16F10), and peritoneal gastric carcinoma (MKN45-P). Moreover, FAM-UNO was shown to guide cargo to CD206+ macrophages and was proposed as a potential sentinel lymph node imaging agent.
Ideally UNO peptide should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. UNO peptide should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Scodeller P, Simón-Gracia L, Kopanchuk S, Tobi A, Kilk K, Säälik P, et al. Precision Targeting of Tumor Macrophages with a CD206 Binding Peptide. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):14655
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-CSPGAKVRC-Amidation
- Chemical Formula:C36H66N14O10S2
- Sequence length:9
- Extinction coefficient:0 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:919.12
- Theoretical pI:9.15
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
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• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
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