Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
Penetratin, a 16-mer Drosophila Antennapedia derived peptide, like TAT, crosses the biological membranes and is transported to the nucleus of the cells. The interaction between penetratin (P16; RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK) and phospholipid bicelles mimicking biological membranes was studied by NMR spectroscopy. The secondary structure and positioning studies confirmed the two tryptophan residues (48W and 56W) as the most important amino acids required for cellular internalization . The P16 or its shortened variant P7 (RRMKWKK) has been utilized to promote cellular uptake of impermeable targeting peptides such as G7-18NATE. Antitumor efficacy and translocation across the BBB of liposomes or liposome encapsulated drugs (doxorubicin and erlotinib) were evaluated using the in vitro BBB and intracranial glioblastoma xenograft models. Dual conjugation of penetratin and transferrin to liposomes (Tf-Pen-Lipo) significantly enhanced the BBB translocation. In addition, doxorubicin/erlotinib containing Tf-Pen-Liposomes very significantly accumulated in tumors, inhibited tumor growth, and prolonged survival rate when compared to the free drugs.
Ideally Penetratin peptide should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Penetratin peptide should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Pietersz GA. et al. Vaccine. 19:1397-1405 (2001)
- Christiaens B. et al. Eur J Biochem. 27(16):1187-1197 (2004).
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK-OH
- Chemical Formula:C104H168N34O20S
- Sequence length:16
- Extinction coefficient:11380 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:2246.72
- Theoretical pI:12.71
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
Related Products / Services
• Peptide Services: NovoPro's peptide synthesis services include standard chemical peptide synthesis, peptide modification, peptide libraries, and recombinant peptide expression.
• Standard Peptide Synthesis: NovoPro offers quality peptides at the most competitive prices in the industry, starting at $3.20 per amino acid. NovoPro provides PepBox – Automatic Quote Tool for online price calculation.
• Peptide Modifications: NovoPro offers a wide range of peptide modification services including isotope labeling (2H, 15N, and 13C), multiple disulfide bonds, multiple phosphorylations, KLH, BSA, ovalbumin, amidation, acetylation, biotin, FITC, etc.
Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"