Chionodracine [F1W; H4,15,17K; I9K; S11,21K]
Three letter code
Peptide Purity (HPLC)
The increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics is an urgent problem that can be addressed by the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). AMPs are components of innate immune system of eukaryotes and are not prone to the conventional mechanisms that are responsible of drug resistance. Fish are an important source of AMPs and, recently, we have isolated and characterized a new 22 amino acid residues peptide, the chionodracine (Cnd), from the Antarctic icefish Chionodraco hamatus. In this paper we focused on a new Cnd-derived mutant peptide, namely Cnd-m3a, designed to improve the selectivity against prokaryotic cells and the antimicrobial activity against human pathogens of the initial Cnd template. Cnd-m3a was used for immunization of rabbits, which gave rise to a polyclonal antibody able to detect the peptide. The interaction kinetic of Cnd-m3a with the Antarctic bacterium Psychrobacter sp. (TAD1) was imaged using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) immunogold method. Initially the peptide was associated with the plasma membrane, but after 180 min of incubation, it was found in the cytoplasm interacting with a DNA target inside the bacterial cells. Using fluorescent probes we showed that the newly designed mutant can create pores in the outer membrane of the bacteria E. coli and Psychrobacter sp. (TAD1), confirming the results of TEM analysis. Moreover, in vitro assays demonstrated that Cnd-m3a is able to bind lipid vesicles of different compositions with a preference toward negatively charged ones, which mimics the prokaryotic cell. The Cnd-m3a peptide showed quite low hemolytic activity and weak cytotoxic effect against human primary and tumor cell lines, but high antimicrobial activity against selected Gram - human pathogens. These results highlighted the high potential of the Cnd-m3a peptide as a starting point for developing a new human therapeutic agent.
Ideally Chionodracine [F1W; H4,15,17K; I9K; S11,21K] should be stored in a freezer at or below -9C. Chionodracine [F1W; H4,15,17K; I9K; S11,21K] should be refrigerated after reconstitution. For more details, please refer to the manual:Handling and Storage of Synthetic Peptides
- Buonocore F, Picchietti S, Porcelli F, Della Pelle G, Olivieri C, Poerio E, Bugli F, Menchinelli G, Sanguinetti M, Bresciani A, Gennari N, Taddei AR, Fausto AM, Scapigliati G. Fish-derived antimicrobial peptides: Activity of a chionodracine mutant against bacterial models and human bacterial pathogens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2019 Jul;96:9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2019.02.012. Epub 2019 Feb 18. PMID: 30790604.
About TFA salt
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong acid, which is commonly used to cleave synthesized peptides from solid-phase resins and is also used to improve HPLC performance in the peptide purification step. By default, custom peptides are delivered as lyophilized TFA salts, and can contain as much as 10-45% TFA.
TFA in custom peptides can cause inexplicable discrepancies in subsequent assay data. For instance, TFA in nM concentrations has been shown to interfere with cellular assays, inhibiting cellular proliferation in some instances, and increasing cell viability in others . It has also been found to be an unintended allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, GlyR.
TFA Removal Service is recommended for:
- Peptides that will be used in cellular assays
- Peptides that will be used as APIs or in manufactured products
- For hydrophilic peptides containing numerous basic residues
- Analysed Sequence:H-WFGKLYRGKTKVVKKVKGLLKG-OH
- Chemical Formula:C122H205N33O25
- Sequence length:22
- Extinction coefficient:6970 M-1cm-1
- Mw average:2534.13
- Theoretical pI:11.28
- Data Source:Peptide Property Calculator
GRAVY = grand average of hydropathy
Red: Hydrophobic uncharged residues, like F I L M V W A and P
Blue: Basic residues, like R K H and N-terminal -NH2
Green: Acidic residues, like D E and C-terminal -COOH
Black: Polar uncharged residues, like G S T C N Q and Y
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